SÛF HAREKETİNİN İŞÂRÎ TEFSİRİ

Mustafa Altunkaya

Özet


Temel referansı vahiy olan sûf hareketi, Kur’ân’ın tefsirine büyük bir önem verir ve tefsir tarihinde İslâm’ın değişimci medeniyet tasavvurunu şekillendiren önemli bir işârî geleneği inşa eder. İbn Haldun da, asr-ı saadette yaşanan hayatı; “zâhirî-bâtınî ameller” şeklinde ikiye ayırıp, İslâm tasavvufunun kaynağını bâtıni hükümlere dayandırır. Bu çalışmada dermeyan edilen bâtıni alanın sınırları zamanla çizilmiştir. Sözgelimi Kuşeyrî, şeriattan kopuk bâtınî bir işârîliği reddeder ve şöyle der: "Bazıları fenâ mertebesine ulaştıklarını, işledikleri haramlardan dolayı azarlanıp yerilmeyeceklerini söylerler. Sûfi dostlarım! Risâle´yi işte bu sahtekâr sofularla ilgili şikâyetlerimi dermeyan etmek için yazdım" der. Esasen işârî tefsirdeki zâhir-bâtın ikilemi, bir madalyonun iki yüzü gibidir ve birbirine zıtmış gibi görünür fakat gerçekte birbirini tamamlayarak gelişmeyi sağlar. Bu bakımdan işârî tefsir ekolüne yönelik töhmetler gerçeği yansıtmazlar. İşârî tefsirin öznel sezgisel bir alana dayanması bu yorumların bir sistematiğe sahip olmadığı anlamına da gelmez. Nitekim İslâm’ın değişimci medeniyet tasavvurunun; bu öznel yaklaşımlar sayesinde sosyo-ekonomik kalkınma etkisi yapabildiği de bilinmektedir. Bu araştırmada işârî tefsir yönteminin şeri ölçüler yani hududullah ile birlikte hukukullaha da bağlı kaldığı görülecektir. O bakımdan işârî tefsirler, şeri ölçüleri ihlal etmediği gibi şeri hükümlere bir derinlik, ufuk ve anlam genişliği katmaktadırlar. İşârî tefsirlere, Kur’ân’ın hâl ile izahı demek mümkündür. Kur’ân tefsirinde zâhire aykırı olmamak üzere keşf, ilham ve işrâkât, Allah’ın ikramı olarak görmek ve bu hâl yorumlarının medeniyet girişimine ivme kazandıracağını söylemek mümkündür. Sonuç olarak çalışmamızda işârî tefsir yöntemini ele alarak bu yöntemin bir derinlik ve ufuk imkânı sunduğunu belirteceğiz.

 

الملخص

تفسير الصوفية لحركة الصوف

الحركة الصوفية بكل مصطلحاتها وأسسها نمَّى الإطار الفكري للحياة الروحية في الإسلام. لذلك نجد أن الحركة الصوفية أعطت أهمية عظيمة لتفسير القرآن الكريم. و لهذا نرى أن الفكرة الصوفية وضعت تقليداً إشارياً لتشكيل فكرة التمدن التغييرية في تاريخ التفسير. و ابن خلدون لما قسم الحياة الروحية في عصر السعادة النبوية إلى أعمال ظاهرية و باطنية أخذ الأعمال الباطنية منشئاً للتصوف الإسلامي. و بهذا الدليل بإمكاننا أن نقول أن التفاسير الإشارية ركزت على الأعمال الباطنية. لكن الباطن هنا محدود بالشرع و الظاهر. يعني التفسير الإشاري له قيود و حدود. و الإمام القشيري يرفض الباطنية البعيدة عن الشريعة . و يضيف أن البعض ادعوا بأنهم وصلوا إلى مرتبة الفناء، لذلك رفع عنهم الأحكام و كذلك ارتحل عن القلوب حرمة الشريعة واستخفوا بأداء العبادات، واستهانوا بالصوم والصلاة. ايها الأحباء الصوفية ألفت هذه الرسالة شكاية عن الصوفية الكاذبين. فزوجية الظاهر و الباطن في التفسير الإشاري مثل لوجهي المدلاة حيث أنهما يرى الأضداد لكن الحقيقة واحد يكمل الآخر و يوفر التنمية العامة. بناء على ذلك يمكننا القول بأن التهمات الموجهة إلى مدرسة التفسير الإشاري لا يعكس الحقيقة. الرعاية لحدود الشرع و حقوق الله أهم شيئ في هذه المدرسة التفسيرية. لذلك التفسير الإشاري لا يخل الحدود الشرعية و إنما هي تضيفون العمق و الأفق و الشعور بالمعنى إلى أحكام الشريعة.  فالتفسير الإشاري إذاً إيضاح القرآن بالأحوال. و الكشف و الإلهام و الإشراقات في التفسير القرآني موهبة من مواهب الإلهية التي من الممكن أن نقول أنها سوف تسرع مبادرة الحضارة. في هذه الدراسة ، سوف ندرس طريقة التفسير الإشاري و سنشير إلى أن هذا الطريق هو عمق وإمكانية للأف في التفسير القرآن الكريم.

الكلمات المفتاحية: زهد, تأويل, تصور المدنية, تفسير, الحركة الصوف

Abstract

Interpretation of woolen wool movement

Isharî/Sufi tafsir; and the Sunnah-i-Nabawi, which is a kind of commentary developed on the basis of many delicacies that have taken place in this direction. It comes out of the apparent sense of the verses, but it deals with both (zâhir-bâtın) direction. Many pious news items such as the phrase "Everything has a bang and a wreck" has been a source of inspiration for what the Qur'anic text means and about the sufi/utilitarian commentary on what might happen. It is obvious that the verses of Ahqam are not a manifestation of the meaning other than the appearance. Therefore, only a part of the Qur'an can be mentioned in its deep sense. The word of the Bâtî passes frequently in the Qur'an and is used as the opposite of the Qur'ān. "و اسبغ عليكم نعمه ظاهرة و باطنة/Allah has given you abundantly the blessings of beauty and of dismay," is pointed to the visible and invisible blessings of Allah. This statement portrays the existence of some evil evidence and blessings. "لا يكادون يفقهون حديثا/What happens to them does not make a promise" is the apparent mean of the verses of the Qur'an, at a first glance; But also the mean of the god that can be obtained by thinking on it. This condition of being able to be a foundation of self-understanding, "إلا من أتي الله بقلب سليم/But to come to Allah a salvation" It depends on the Qur'an, the heartbeat and the feeding of it. The Messenger of Allah said; "لو تعلمون ما أعلم لضحكتم قليلا و لبكيتم كثيرا و لخرجتم إلى الصعدات ولما تقاررتم على الفراش/If you knew what I know many networks, you were little laugh, you do not stop your bed, be sure to remove high" buyururken, obtained by havass-i hams non meksup beyond bilgin Un; Consciousness, violation, ihsan, takvâ, vera 'and other similar words with different names, which come with grace and virtue. This knowledge is based on an enlightened mind and heart, from the secular ties to the truth of the experience and the experiential. In the commentary of the Qur'an, the above Buhârî (d. The existence of persons such as Umar (d. 22/644) shows that the Islamic-Sufi tefsyrin existed from the beginning. In the history of Islam, the common feature of scientists with inventions and inventions; Proactive and multi-disciplinary cultural backgrounds. By the way, the Qur'anic/Sufi interpretation is approaching with the possibility that there may always be a third method and procedure beyond the text and the letter. This creates a dynamic religion and sharia, or even culture, formed by efforts such as tajdid, tajyir and bond, and this culture is composed of Ibn-i Sina (d. 1037), Ghazālī (d. Revolution in chemistry, medicine, psychology, astronomy, literature, art and architecture like Hayyan (d 815), Senâî (d.1140), Suhreverdi (d.1191), Ibn Arabi (d.1240), Geylan Personality, inventions and inventions. Unlike what is known to those who ask for the altar of zakat; The Bayezid-i Bestami (d. 874), the founder of the Tayfuriyya school, who develops a socio-economic approach by saying that all goods outside need are to be distributed to the poor as zakat, Again, Hallâc-ı Mansûr (d. 922), Ibn Rushd (d. 1198), who says, "Your god is under my feet" and contrary to what is known, Ene'l-Hak (I am right) Ibn Arabi (d. 1240), who said that "science is ignorance at the same time," which gives unexpected answers in paradoxes by saying both yes and no, and that even the Asûrî, Keldanî, Nesturî, Assyrian, Jewish and Mecûsî non-Muslims who participated in their conferences were Muslims Abdulkadir-i Geylani (d. 1166) can also be cited as an example of this extraordinary title. In this article, we want to reveal the shari'a bases of Isari interpretation and to discuss the effect of this interpretation on Islamic transformational civilization.


Anahtar Kelimeler


Zühd ve Sûf Hareketi, Tefsir, Te’vil, Medeniyet Tasavvuru, زهد, تأويل, تصور المدنية, تفسير, الحركة الصوف, Interperetation, Commentary, suf movement, comment, civili-zation thought



 

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